Tuesday, May 10, 2011

SEMESTER REFLECTION : journal 14

After the most difficult semester of my life, it's time for me to reflect. My vision and even thought of design has completely changed, but for the better. I now understand why we were put through those horrible assignments day to day. Being a designer is not all about the finished product. As much as it was stressed even back in August, it was hard for me to really understand why. The last projects for Tad and Andrea's classes have showed me how much process matters. Nothing I made a month or so ago would have been to caliber conceptual wise as my projects are now.


I feel, and hope, that I gradually got better with my projects. I started to care a lot more, and would spend more time on them. I don't like to work on things that aren't interesting to me. It's true. But I think I'm starting to like those things I used to not like. My perception of design is changing as well. I think I'm moving forward from just the aesthetic part of design and to the conceptual part. I hope I can keep this going.


I am inspired by typography. I wish I could just design with type all the time. Sometimes I wander if I would ever want to be a typographer, but I might kill myself. I love making designs into things that people can see / appreciate / use. I was really into Tad's last project because it was directly related to my roommate. 


I am excited to see what I can offer from here on out. Hoping all goes well with Review, and I can continue to learn, explore, and challenge myself with the opportunities given here.

LARRY LESSIG : journal 13

Larry Lessig is one of our foremost authorities on copyright issues, with a vision for reconciling freedom with marketplace competition through creativity. In his talk he spoke of issues of copyright and trespassing being hampers to creativity in general. He provided examples through a brief history of copyrights and the application of existing material for new material, like remixes. What I found interesting about this talk is Lessig's theories on the unity of business and creativity. He spoke on the growth of technology and how it enables our generation to create through innumerable methods. Because of this, Lessig states that our generation is learning to speak primarily through these methods. He feels that businesses should let the artists and creators themselves decide what can and cannot be made available. Because it is business that is hampering the way that people communicate through the new and ever growing language of technology. Lessig's views on creativity were interesting to hear, and the thought never occurred to me as a designer that commerce could be such an obstacle. But thinking to all the printing and media limitations I've dealt with, I would have to agree with Lessig. I should not have to create based on limitation, I should be able to create without bounds.

Sunday, May 8, 2011

CURTIS ARTIST SERIES : journal 12

DAVID CARSON
Carson spreads out composition and starts designing to what makes sense to him. He was making self indulgent work, as the design world grows it is important for you to put yourself into the work. His work is not very structured very sporadic and poppy, however it definitely has emotions and movement on the page, and his compositions are very flow and he try to incorporate words to his design. The starting point is trying to interpret what you just read and listened too to see where it goes. Where do you compositions come from? How do people react to your work? do you care about what the audience is perceiving about your work or are you just designing from yourself? Do you think that design has moved to a more personal aspect then trying to please the client?

PAULA SCHER
Signage - things about being new and pop out of the place it is in. Started did Jazz style and it should almost all be in order and one being off to catch your attention. Her style is loud and invisible and urban. all about words and type and how they work together and can show motion and style. operate with instincts and try again and then give up you have to get it first off. Never been a refiner, big bold strokes that come clearly. Illustrate with type not to just rub type down on a corner but use it as a design aspect. One moment you figure it out and you get it and it gets really exciting and you never get over that feeling of accomplishing something. What are you going to say to people who aware by a process book and say that your first ideas just scratch the service on where you could go? what got you interested in signage?

MILTON GLASER
“Art is work” where is he going with design - doesn’t know until his life is over and he has his work to look back on. feel close to the life of the artist then that adds the relationships of artists. Art is a gift and needs to be based on to create more art. This is what artist do in culture artist provide the gift to the culture so that people have something in common. The ability to transfer ideas from one to another doesn’t matter who you effect but you will effect, your community, family, city and possibly the world. Most interesting thing in ones later life - if you can sustain your interest for long periods of time, loose interest and get tired, and also loose your compacity for astonishment. benefit for being in the arts is the possibility for learning never disappears. What is the most important aspect to design? Do you recommended teaching to al designers?

Friday, May 6, 2011

DESIGN MATTERS : journal 11

Debbie Millman is a partner and president of the design division at Sterling Brands, one of the leading brand identity firms in the country. Millman is president of AIGA, and chair of the School of Visual Arts’ master’s program in Branding. She is a contributing editor to Print magazine and host of the podcast “Design Matters.” She is the author of How To Think Like A Great Graphic Designer (Allworth Press, 2007), The Essential Principles of Graphic Design (Rotovision, 2008) and Look Both Ways: Illustrated Essays on the Intersection of Life and Design (How Books, 2009).

It is a radio talk show, hosted by Debbie Millman, where she takes listeners inside the world of design and branding to talk to professionals about what they do, how they do it and (most importantly) WHY they do what they do.

I listened to the interview Debbie gave to Ann Whiloughby and it displayed a very tranquil and humble view. She talked about the inspiration she received when visiting a hospital that her mother was in. She talked about the raw emotion and tension and even love that is conveyed in an environment like that. People are not here by choice and are hopeful that everything will be okay, her mother was in the same boat.

Sunday, May 1, 2011

GOOD. IS. : journal 10

The first video that I watched was 'The State of the Planet'. This video conveyed a somewhat large amount of information at a paced and understandable fashion. It followed the trend of quickly moving text to the center of the screen in a bouncy and synchronized fashion. This style could possibly be an essential building block to creating a comprehensible motion graphic video.

The Hidden Cost of War

-Uses text which stacks on one another at the beginning of the video, utilizing scale and color to add emphasis to certain words. The rest of the video communicated it's information mostly with vector graphics in the form of info graphics.




An info graphic which combines photography with vector graphics. It uses an asymmetrical structure, combining sans serif typography with clearn and understandable vector images. The result is a substantially effective delivery of information.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

TYPE MEANS NEVER HAVING TO SAY YOU'RE SORRY : journal 8

Type Means Never Having to Say You're Sorry is an article that talks about young design students who do all of these great time consuming projects but fail to know the history behind it. Most students don't know the background of the typeface they choose hence affecting how it is read through their project. Futura is specifically critiqued in this article. After reading this other typefaces that may work better than Futura are: Univers, Berthold Akzidenz Grotesk, or Gotham Book. 


I also read Designing Under the Influence by Michael Bierut. Bierut interviews a newly graduated designer who has a cd packaging project done in Futura Bold Italic done in a style directly a mimic of Barbara Kruger. This young person, first had no idea who Kruger was and had been directed by a professor who decided to ignore the peculiar resemblance. There is an ignorance of typeface and designers that needs to be addressed.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

SPEECH INFORMATION

1988 NCAA Basketball Championship
1:24 – 3:09


SPEAKING?
Brent Musburger & Billy Packer


WHY IMPORTANT / INTERESTING?
It was extremely important to Kansas Jayhawk fans, but still important to the nation. A sixth seed is not supposed to win, but they did. It could be called a cinderella story, but Danny and the Miracles fits better.


WHAT'S THE EMOTION, MOOD, TONE, PERSONALITY, FEELING?
The beginning is serious because the game is not over yet. Stuff is being analyzed for a little bit and going through what the teams could / couldn't do. After the buzzer rings, the words of the commentators are simple. They let the crowd become more important.


WHAT IS INTONATION & EMPHASIS? WHAT IS LOUD, STRESSED, OR SOFT? WHERE ARE THE PAUSES?
intonation – intonation is variation of pitch while speaking which is not used to distinguish words.
The beginning is soft because they are more waiting for something to happen. The middle and end are loud / stressed because the crowd is loud and excitement is everywhere. There are significant pauses just to listen to the crowd.


WHAT I THINK SHOULD BE LOUD OR SOFT, LONG PAUSE OR RUSH?
I think the beginning should be full of analytical talking and stuff going on. But the middle and end should be more simple statements and audio of the crowd with pauses.


CALL TO ACTION? KEY / EMPHASIZED WORDS?
The end states: "The Kansas Jayhawks have beaten all odds!"
"Danny Manning", "papa", "second national championship", "won it", "mathematically impossible", "beaten all odds", "bedlam reigns".


HOW DOES IT MAKE ME FEEL?
To me, it feels reinvigorating. I wasn't alive when it happened, so I never got to have that excitement. It was a big deal and the Kansas Jayhawks made history. I feel proud to go to KU because of this.


HOW DOES THE AUDIENCE FEEL?
It depends on who the audience is, but a general audience would feel happy. The words do not talk negatively about anything, just the positive. Nothing about Oklahoma losing needed to be said, so the average person would be happy for Kansas.


ANOTHER INTERPRETATION?
Yes! There are probably many radio versions of the game. This was the official television version, though.


BRENT MUSBURGER
Musburger is an American sportscaster for the ESPN and ABC television networks. Formerly with CBS Sports and one of the original members of their legendary program The NFL Today, Musburger has covered NBAMLBNCAA college Football and basketball games. Musburger has also served as a studio host for games, a play by play man, and halftime host. He has also performed post game wrap up segments and covered championship trophy presentations.


BILLY PACKER
Packer first worked at the network level with NBC (1974–1981) and then CBS (1981–2008). He has covered Atlantic Coast Conference basketball games since 1972, and formerly covered the league for Raycom Sports, a division of Raycom Media. Packer won a Sports Emmy Award in 1993. In 2005, Packer received the Marvin Francis Award for "notable achievement and service in coverage of the ACC," as reported by The Washington Post. On July 15, 2008, CBS announced that Packer would be replaced on the network's lead broadcast crew by Clark Kellogg, marking the end of 35 straight years of NCAA tournament color commentary coverage. In March 2009, he returned to the studio with Bobby Knight for Survive and Advance, a NCAA tournament preview show produced by Fox Sports Net.


SPEECH TEXT

It is only appropriate, that for the Kansas Jayhawks, it comes down to Danny Manning at the free-throw line.


His line on the night, he’s 3 of 5 from the free-throw line.
Now for the NCAA Championship, and no one will be prouder than his papa.
Well Brent, if he makes this free throw this game is over because even if Oklahoma scores, Kansas doesn’t have to take it out of bounds.
Now Danny Manning shooting to give the Kansas Jayhawks their second national championship.
Kansas has won it!
It’s mathematically impossible now as long as Kansas does not foul for Oklahoma to win the game.
Larry Brown can’t believe it.
The Kansas Jayhawks have beaten all odds.
They have lost more games than any champion in the history of the NCAA.
And bedlam reigns here in Kansas City as the Jayhawks beat the Sooners 83 to 79.


Tuesday, March 15, 2011

30 CONVERSATIONS ON DESIGN

JESSICA HELFAND


Helfand's biggest inspiration is her students. She loves how they continue to grow, expand, and create things that she can no longer do.


Helfand thinks that we need challenge our students in to think about the future instead of just the present. Yes, we solve problems. But how can our solutions today still stay effective in the future? Think bigger and broader for our own sake.


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EMILY PILLOTON

Pilloton used MacGiver as an inspiration do more with less. Many of his solutions were not complicated at all, but simple. Simple ideas can solve complex problems.

Pilloton would like design to dramatically affect the educational world. Design needs to be apart of education, instead of just tests and papers. How can problems be solved and what is the process of getting there? Process is more important than the final product, and how is that designed?


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WILLIAM DRENTTEL

Drenttel loves the idea that design ten years ago is not the same as today. Design is impacting the world today, instead of just aesthetically nice posters. Our design is addressing the larger problems in the world.

Drenttel thinks designers need to step up and collaborate for the social problems in the world today. We need to be collect information and collectively help the world we live in.  Engaging designs in new ways to help the world.

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DEBORAH ADLER

Adler was inspired by the Pieta by Michelangelo in Italy. She was conncected by an emotional aspect that was given. It inspires her to connect her pieces to an audience.

Adler thinks designers can produce better work by having a love affair with the audience. Understand, learn, and create with a passion for the audience.

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K. KIRK & N. STRANDBERG

Kirk and Strandberg are inspired by the iPhone. Aesthetically, it is beautiful. But the interface is what is really amazing. You are able to say "WOW!" and "of course!" in the same sentence when reacting to its capabilities. The iPhone inspires others, which inspires Kirk and Strandberg.

Kirk and Strandberg think the next problem design should solve is already happening: social networks. To advance this idea, they have a few aspects picked that could bring it more to a solution. Wifi, compatibility, and accessibility should be considered as future steps.

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ME - BRADLEY BROOKS

Personally, I am inspired by typography and simplicity. The two can be joined to create beautiful solutions. I love the idea of less is more while still creating a solution.

I would like to see more problem solving and design solutions introduced at an earlier age in the future. Get students thinking conceptually at an earlier age than the average college freshman year. More solutions could be created and achieved.

Monday, March 7, 2011

TYPOGRAPHY : things to know

1 / advantages of multiple column width? room for experimentation and easy to layout text


2 / characters per line length? 40-50; words per line? 

3 / why is baseline grid used in design? it keeps things aligned so they can have a cohesive baseline.

4 / what is a typographic river? gaps formed when you justify text

5 / what is a clothesline? a defined line where the text is going to hang

6 / incorporate space into design? connecting title with text, text with text, so that the whitespace is on the outside; rag some columns (depending); adjusting the type size; how far the columns go high and low.

7 / what is typographic color? bold, weight, size, tracking, leading, column width.

8 / what is x-height, how does it effect type color? 

9 / in justification or H & J terms what do the number minimum, optimum, and maximum mean? 

10 / rules to indicate new paragraph? 

11 / rules for hyphenation? don't let two letters be left behind; don't hyphenation proper nouns or people's names;

12 / ligerature? when letters merge together (serif fonts) that are so close that they need to be together.

13 / cmyk vs. rgb? cmyk is used for printing in four-color process (additive); rgb is used on the internet (subtractive)

14 / hanging punctuation? 

15 / foot mark vs. apostrophe?  

16 / inch mark vs. quote mark (smart quote)? 

17 / what is hyphen, em dash(es), and what are the differences and when are they used? 

Sunday, March 6, 2011

JOURNAL 5 : jonathan harris

click here for speech


Jonathan Harris is an artist in different aspects of our world: visual, digital, emotional. He is now mostly into digital and computer science allowing him to work on the web. He he has created websites to allow someone to explore their own lives. He strives to find the best way to allow someone to find love the best way. Harris explains his reasoning on why he thinks the outcome is more important than the idea. He talks about his journey through coding and how it has affected his life. He poses questions pertaining whether or not the internet is good for us, or if it's ever done anything good for us.


I really enjoyed the questions that Jonathan Harris posed and how they can relate directly to our lives. His occupation is so respectable because of how he thinks. "With all the porn and sex on the internet, it's amazing how asexual the internet actually is." It's impressive how he can devote so much of his life to his work. I know he explained how there are no masterpieces on the internet yet. However, I think the internet itself is a masterpiece. Yes, there are negative aspects to it, but the fact that the internet can connect the entire world is indescribably amazing. We can use it for so many things and I think should be considered one of the notable masterpieces of our world.

Thursday, March 3, 2011

ABDUZEEDO : dev gupta

This is a website that I regularly go to for inspiration on layouts, typography, graphics, and anything. It covers a wide range of aspects that we normally go over everyday. The stuff is really, really cool and well done. This article is particularly cool and features work by Dev Gupta. And I saw some really successful poster designs. There are many great conceptual ideas in here, as well (American flag with stripes as loading bars). ANYONE should check this out and bookmark it like me to use it in the future.


ABDUZEEDO : dev gupta



SUMMERFEST : branding

For our first project this year, we rebranded Summerfest. This is a Kansas City company that produces chamber music mainly during the summer, but also does outreach to the company throughout the year. Their brand was bad, really bad. They needed something new while still reflecting their core values and who they are.

A better look of this project will be on my Behance site soon!


Sunday, February 27, 2011

INCOMPLETE MANIFESTO > journal 4

click here


BRUCE MAU
Bruce Mau has his own design firm and works with some of the biggest clients in the world: Coca-Cola, McDonald's, MTV, and more. He is set apart from other firms because of how he works. "Since founding his studio in 1985, Mau has used design and optimism to originate, innovate, and renovate businesses, brands, products, and experiences." He works to better the world, not himself. His work is great, but who he is working with and how Mau is working is amazing. Bruce is also an author and publisher of award-winning books. And to top it off, he was awarded the AIGA Gold Medal for Communication Design. He works in Toronto and still lives consistently with his motto, "Now that we can do anything, what will we do?"


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MANTRA
6. Capture accidents.
The wrong answer is the right answer in search of a different question. Collect wrong answers as part of the process. Ask different questions.

I recognized this immediately. I find myself struggling at times and know that I don't have the right answer to what I'm struggling with. But I should use what I have to go forth and explore more until I get to the solution. Solutions don't just appear without thought and exploration.

OPEN LETTER TO DESIGN STUDENTS EVERYWHERE

click here


JESSICA HELFAND
Jessica is a an author, columnist, and lecturer on graphic design. She is the partner of William Drenttel of Winterhouse Studios, Winterhouse Editions and Winterhouse Institute located in Falls Village, Connecticut. She is a critic in graphic design at Yale University, where she earned her M.F.A. in graphic design and her B.A. in graphic design and architectural theory. She is a 1978 graduate of The George School in Newtown, PA. Winterhouse was formerly known as Jessica Helfand | William Drenttel. Its website describes that studio as "a design consultancy in New York that concentrates on editorial design and the development of new models for old and new media." Helfand is also a "founding writer" of the Design Observer weblog. with Michael Bierut, Wiliam Drenttel and Rick Poynor.


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OPEN LETTER TO DESIGN STUDENTS EVERYWHERE
This article addresses challenges to design students across the world focusing on thesis writing. There are tips and truths on how to best conduct yourself in the professional world. Less is more is how we should conceptually think day-to-day. And it also explains that we will never stop learning. College is where we learn how to learn.

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MAIN POINTS
"Get your work online."
"...go that extra mile and send a thank-you note."
"Do not wait to get back to your desk to write things down or, better yet, to draw them."
"...less, in fact, is more."
"There's plenty of time to get complicated later."
"With structure comes freedom."
"...never stop thinking. Never stop asking questions. Never, never stop reading, looking, imagining what else can be done." 

Sunday, February 20, 2011

JOURNAL ::: 3

STEPHAN SAGMEISTER SHARES HAPPY DESIGN:
This was a great short video to watch and think about conceptually.  He mentioned how design can be happy visually and how that is accomplished.  Then, happiness can actually be evoked from design.  I really liked some of the work that he has done personally that was generated from those lists he had made.  I wonder if, when he is in this mindset of designing happiness, whether it's better to just let it happen on its own.  In other words, do you have to try to create happiness through design?  Or is it better to let it be created without actually trying to create it.  Again, I really liked the selections he chose to display when talking about happiness in design, I think they all really clicked.

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GARY LAUDER'S NEW TRAFFIC SIGN: TAKE TURNS
Gary Lauder has observed a problem and attempted to come up with a solution.  Stop and yield signs have been helped in ways and not in other ways.  Lauder detailed a financial plan of why it makes sense for them in certain areas and why it does, in fact, make sense.  He even invented a new sign, "Take Turns".  It's the hybrid between the stop and yield signs.  I wonder if this could ever actually take place, or is it just the concept behind the sign that should take off.  I would ask Lauder if there could be another solution involving stop lights instead of signs.  They are everywhere, and if a simple solution could also cut down in wrecks, injuries, and deaths.

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SAM MARTIN: THE QUIRKY WORLD OF "MANSPACES"
In one way or another, most people have a space that they can call their own.  Sam Martin had to share a space with an infant son of his, so he built a space in his backyard.  These places are hangout spots, working areas, etc.  But these spaces were designed by men who knew what the purpose of that room was.  The rooms are who these men are.  Sam Martin presents this interesting topic in a well mannered way to make us think about our spaces along with the design.  I'd ask Martin whether the manspace of his has created a better relationship with those who live with him?  Is it better to be able to get away in a space that is your designed area?

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HOW GOOD IS GOOD:
Sagmeister elaborates on the idea of how and why good design is good.  He simply bullet pointed many aspects of what design does.  Specifically, I enjoyed the equations that he made.  
Good Design + Bad Cause = Bad
Bad Design + Good Cause = Good?
I like how there is a question mark after the second equation.  I guess it could go either way, but I'd say more bad than good.  I would much rather there be both good design and good cause, because either way it is going to equal good.

BRADLEY'S DESIGN EQUATION:
Good Design + Good Cause = Good

Sunday, February 13, 2011

JOURNAL // 2

Dieter Rams 10 Principles for Good Design
When you read these 10 principles, you go "duh".  But these are harder to achieve successfully than you'd think.  I'd say these principles can be confined to "simple design for humans".  We change, and so will design.  We have needs, and design should respond to those needs.


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Don Norman: 3 ways good design makes you happy
Don Norman believes that happiness is the result of good design. He referenced the "oo" in Google and explained how it is a solution and kinda fun. He talks about how simple solutions like this can affect design in a positive way. The emotions that he talks about are there, but apparently we are unaware of them.
Visceral, behavioral, and reflective outline the three emotions.

QUESTION FOR DON NORMAN: Does all good design create happiness? It seems like there would be exceptions. Or, is all design that creates happiness good design?

AUDIENCE PERSONAS // bookjackets

Elise is a 16 year old high school sophomore.  She enjoys quality and quantity.  She is a natural over-achiever who has been doing so her entire life.  She enjoys helping out with her three little siblings and reading them books.  She lives in an extremely conservative family but secretly seeks rebellion.  She is constantly restrained by her past and is reminded of it everyday.


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Cameron is a 26 year old who lives in Chicago.  Currently, he is trying to figure out what he is going to do with his life.  He has spent so much time having a good time with his life, he got behind working on his future.  All of his friends are starting their careers and moving on with their lives.  He has all these ideas, but doesn't know how to apply them to the world or a job.  His parents are starting to worry about him, and so is he.


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Jimmy is 80 years old who was the CEO of a billion dollar company for 53 years.  He is "that" guy.  He recently retired and passed the torch to his son.  His company was supposed to fail, but Jimmy turned it into a success.  It is built for his family, and now grand-son or grand-daughter will never run out of money.  But he's loved his job more than his family the last 53 years and is realizing it now.  He is trying to take advantage of the time he still has by spending time with his family.  He is now learning that money can't buy everything in life, especially the most important things.

VISUALS

THESE ARE VISUALS THAT SHOULD HELP ME WHEN I AM STUCK AND GIVE ME SOME DIRECTION OF SUCCESSFUL DESIGNS.

























Tuesday, February 8, 2011

20 RULES FOR GOOD DESIGN

MOST IMPORTANT:
8. Negative space is magical - Create it, don't just fill it up!
9. Treat the type as image, as though it's just as important.
19. Look to history, but don't repeat it.


PRACTICE MORE:
7. If you can do it with less, then do it.
14. Be decisive. Do it on purpose - or don't do it at all.
16. Create Images- don't scavenge.


JUST IGNORE:
15. Measure with your eyes: design is visual.
18. Move it! Static equals dull.
20. Symmetry is the ultimate evil.

Sunday, February 6, 2011

JOURNAL ENTRY // 1

The “Writer’s Toolbox” is a guide for designers made to help with the different ways of thinking. It is always important to start with writing when you are designing. Free-writing is almost like brainstorming where are there are no dumb questions.  So, there are no dumb ideas when doing these exercises. Mind mapping, concept mapping, free writing, and word lists are examples of techniques to get the ideas flowing. When complete with these exercises, you are bound to have ideas that are potentially successful and will lead you in the right direction. In the end the whole point is to record all of your thoughts and ideas as they occur, allowing all of them to flow out, the good and the not so good. These writing exercises will help you when you are designing visually, even though they were writing.  And it is a great reference for you to look back at when you need inspiration.  But also, it should be able to improve you design conceptually because it won't just be aesthetically nice, but the ideas could be successful as well.




MY IMAGES WON'T LOAD, SO I AM GOING TO KEEP TRYING OTHER WAYS OF DOING IT.

Monday, January 31, 2011

DESIGNERS I SHOULD KNOW // and you!

SAUL BASS


PAUL RAND


ALEXANDER GIRARD


ALVIN LUSTIG


ALAN FLETCHER


THE EAMES


MARIA KALMAN


STEVEN HELLER

Tuesday, January 25, 2011

THIS MEANS THAT // SUMMARY


The word semiotics is from the Greek word “semeiotikos,” which means interpreter of signs. Signs are important because they can mean something other than themselves. In the western World, we live in a society that is largely mechanistic and consumerist in outlook. Semiotics is about the tools, processes and contexts we have for creating, interpreting and understanding meaning in a variety of different ways. There are two basic types of signing, conventional and natural. For example, it is natural for us to wear clothes in the cold, but it is conventional for shoes like high heels to be seen as a sex symbol. There are numerous relationships that exist between signifier and signified. For example, an apple can mean temptation, and apple can mean healthy, an apple can mean fruit, an apple can mean apple. Many of the signs we use to communicate are arbitrary in the sense that they are not immediately transparent to us. With any icon there is some degree of resemblance between signifier and signified. The medium many be presentational, representational, or mechanical. We need to know that symbols stand for in advance if we are to understand them, for example, a black tie is an arbitrary relationship for a formal occasion.